Europe & Eurasia

CLDP has assisted countries in Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union with the commercial law reforms necessary to achieve economic and political integration and stability through World Trade Organization (WTO) accession. CLDP provided WTO accession technical assistance to six of the first eight post-Soviet states to join the WTO (Albania, Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Moldova) as well as Ukraine and Russia. For countries that have successfully acceded to the WTO, CLDP continues to provide technical expertise by helping those countries meet and uphold their post-accession obligations.

Recent programming is focused on a wide variety of customs, trade, and intellectual property programs –with both the public and private sectors. CLDP currently has programs in ArmeniaAzerbaijan, Bosnia-HerzegovinaCentral AsiaGeorgiaKosovoKyrgyz Republic and Ukraine. Please click here to learn about CLDP's results in Europe and Eurasia.


CLDP’s current work in the region is focused on intellectual property protection and enforcement, business enabling environment capacity building, and customs and trade-related programs as a way to increase foreign direct investment and spur regional economic integration.


Goal:  CLDP helps improve the environment for alternative dispute resolution of commercial disputes in BiH, working with the Arbitration Court of the Federation of BiH Trade Chamber to modernize its rules and practices, raise awareness of domestic arbitration tribunal in the private sector, improve judicial recognition and enforcement of arbitral decisions, and develop a new class of arbitration specialists through improving legal education in this areas. In addition, CLDP’s judicial capacity building program has worked to strengthen BiH’s intellectual property regime and create a critical mass of BiH judges trained in adjudication of commercial disputes disputes. CLDP helped publish BiH’s first Judicial Intellectual Property Benchbook in 2013, helping judges improve the consistency of their decisions in this area, and promoted the Benchbook throughout its programs. These programs help instill a business environment conducive to increased trade and investment and economic growth in BiH.

Program Areas:

  • Judicial training workshops on international commercial dispute topics such as intellectual property disputes, international sales contracts, mediation, international commercial instruments, bankruptcy/insolvency, and arbitration.
  • Programs for the development and improvement of the Arbitration Court of the Foreign Trade Chamber of BiH, aiming to improve the capacity of BiH’s public and private sector to develop, implement, and utilize arbitration in BiH, based on international best practices, thereby reducing the backlog of cases in the judicial system and increasing the efficiency of commercial dispute resolution in BiH.
  • Programs aimed at developing international commercial law and arbitration curricula for public universities throughout BiH, and assisting with BiH’s participation in the Vis International Commercial Arbitration Moot.


Goal: CLDP’s programs in Kosovo focus on improvement of customs procedures; strengthening the customs’ role in protecting intellectual property rights; and instituting an effective ethics regime within the customs agency. Collectively, CLDP’s activities in Kosovo are geared toward improving access to international markets and sustaining economic development by eliminating counterfeit goods.  

Program Areas:

  • Workshops for the Customs Service of Kosovo that will address select IPR border enforcement topics of importance to Kosovo’s customs authorities, with the aims of increasing the adequacy and efficiency of Kosovo’s customs officials to combat the trade in counterfeit and pirated goods, to increase the efficiency of IPR enforcement in Kosovo, and to promote increased dialogue between customs authorities, government agencies, and the private sector.
  • Develop anti-corruption strategies and implement a comprehensive integrity program utilizing international standards and best practices, such as the Integrity Codes Developed by the WCO, the UN Convention Against Corruption, the Integrity Guide of the International Chamber of Commerce, and the Kyoto Convention, for the Kosovo Customs Service.


Goal: CLDP maintains personnel in Ukraine and continues to be the focal point for programs related to implementation of WTO obligations. CLDP Ukraine staff members regularly assist the State Intellectual Property Service, the State Customs Service, the Ministry of Economic Development and Trade, and the Ministry of Interior.

CLDP, utilizing a Ukraine-based WTO expert advisor, will provide technical assistance to the Ukrainian government on Ukraine’s WTO rights and obligations. CLDP would also provide capacity building programs on relevant WTO subjects, including: trade facilitation, technical barriers to trade, sanitary and phytosanitary measures, trade remedies, government procurement, intellectual property, telecom/cyber-security and customs.

Program Areas:

  • Judicial capacity building program to improve the adjudication of intellectual property disputes in cooperation with the National School of Judges and the Higher Commercial Court of Ukraine. Development of a judicial benchbook on intellectual property.
  • Expanding the judicial capacity building program to include other international commercial dispute matters, such as bankruptcy and insolvency.
  • Workshops on intellectual property and innovation for government officials, academia, and other relevant stakeholders.
  • Comprehensive capacity building program with the Ministry of Economic Development and Trade on global trade analysis, economic modeling and trade policy development.
  • Workshop on the use of alternative dispute resolution for commercial disputes.
  • Engagement with the Government of Ukraine and other stakeholders on intellectual property protection and enforcement, including workshops on digital piracy and collective copyright management.


CLDP’s programs in Eurasia focus on sustainable institutional capacity development enabling economic growth, providing for increased trade and investment opportunities.


Goal: CLDP’s programs in Armenia work to protect and enforce intellectual property rights through training lawyers, judges, and collective copyright management organization, thereby improving the environment for protection of the cultural heritage, innovation and commercialization in the country. CLDP also works to increase transparency and institute international best practices in government procurement, helping Armenia to implement its obligations under the World Trade Organization’s Government Procurement Agreement. Lastly, CLDP works to improve the capacity and efficiency of the legal system through training programs for judges and judicial assistants. 

Program Areas:

  • Provide comprehensive training to Armenian IP specialists and help facilitate coordination and collaboration between enforcement agencies.
  • Implement international best practices in public procurement and ensure Armenia’s compliance with the WTO Government Procurement Agreement (GPA).
  • Build judicial capacity on a variety of topics including adjudication of intellectual property infringement, bankruptcy and insolvency, investment disputes, and alternative dispute resolution.  


Goal:  CLDP’s programs in Azerbaijan focus on open government initiatives to help ensure the implementation and enforcement of its anti-corruption strategy and relevant legislation, and demonstrate the benefits of a transparent, effective, and accountable government. CLDP works to bring Azerbaijan up to speed on international best practices in methods of public procurement, ensuring transparency and efficiency in the public contracting process. CLDP also cooperates with the government of Azerbaijan and Azerbaijan’s non-governmental intellectual property (IP) organizations, aiming to develop effective IP policies, assist with IP implementation, improve the protection of collective copyright management, and contribute to the improved enforcement of intellectual property rights in Azerbaijan.

Program Areas:

  • Implementation of the Open Government Program for the government of Azerbaijan, focusing on international best practices and help Azerbaijan adopt, implement, and comply with international standards as embodied by its membership in the Open Government Partnership (OGP) and the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC).
  • Workshops utilizing international best practices to ensure fair, efficient, and transparent public procurement with a particular emphasis on cybersecurity and e-procurement.
  • Consultations with The State Committee for Standardization, Metrology and Patents of Azerbaijan, the Embassy of Azerbaijan, the Azerbaijan Author’s Society (AAS), and USPTO on technical assistance matters concerned with intellectual property.


Goal: CLDP's programs in Central Asia aim to facilitate trade among the Central Asian countries Kazakhstan, The Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan, and between the region and international trading partners, including Afghanistan. CLDP assists Central Asian states in maximizing their trade potential, increasing export and import capacity, and stimulating regional integration. The programs aim to improve the skill and knowledge level of Central Asian states’ government officials, and support their communication and cooperation in three key areas: customs, standards, and sanitary and phystosanitary (SPS) measures. Finally, the program furthers the goals of the New Silk Road Initiative and the U.S.-Central Asia Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA).

Program Areas:

  • Technical trainings in customs administration, including the World Trade Organization (WTO) Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) requirements as a framework for customs modernization, as well as the role of the World Customs Organization in implementing the TFA obligations.
  • Capacity building workshops to inform key Central Asian officials of the requirements of the WTO agreements on trade facilitation and technical barriers to trade, with the aim of increasing the capacity of Central Asian countries to meet the applicable requirements, both individually and as a region. These workshops also develop best practices in the utilization of standards and conformity assessment procedures in order to achieve trade facilitation for the region.
  • Expert level regional working groups on other key trade issues, including Standards/Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) measures identifying specific SPS commodities that are affected by environmental and other ecological issues. Working groups will also review the progress made by participating countries to date on SPS issues with respect to their obligations under trade regimes.
  • New specialty training exercises designed to encourage participation in and adherence to Trade and Investment Framework Agreements (TIFAs) providing strategic frameworks and principles for international dialogue on trade and investment issues.


Goal: CLDP leads a number of technical assistance programs in Georgia with the aim of creating a better business enabling environment, creating new and diversified trade and investment opportunities, and improving the commercial legal framework. CLDP’s program in Georgia includes building the capacity of Georgia’s intellectual property protection and enforcement, through assistance to the National Intellectual Property Center (“Sakpatenti”) and the Georgian Copyright Association (GCA); working with the Ministry of Justice on improved management of investor-state arbitration; assisting Georgian institutions in supporting and developing small and medium enterprises (SMEs); improving the country’s capacity for commercial dispute resolution by building the capacity of judges and attorneys; improving Georgia’s capacity for trade diplomacy by working through key international trade agreements; and other technical assistance programs.

Program Areas:

  • Continue intellectual property protection and enforcement programs in Georgia, as officially requested by the Ministry of Economy and Sustainable Development, the Georgian Copyright Association (GCA), and the National Intellectual Property Center “Sakpatenti.”
  • Implement trade policy analysis and negotiation training for the Ministry of Economy and Sustainable Development and other Government of Georgia officials. 
  • A program on improving the legal and technical environment for franchises, with a particular emphasis on developing the participation of small and medium enterprises in this sector.
  • Judicial and legal training programs aimed at creating a critical mass of Georgian legal professionals to fairly and efficiently handle international commercial disputes; producing predictable, harmonized, and effective management of international sales contracts across Georgia; and equipping voluntary and mandatory associations of attorneys with the necessary tools and resources to institutionalize commercial law instructions for their members.
  • Capacity building program on managing, minimizing, and resolving international investor-state disputes for the Ministry of Justice of Georgia and other key ministries entering into investor-state agreements.
  • Capacity building program to improve Georgia’s multilateral, bilateral, and regional trade policy effectiveness. Training seminars aim to improve Georgia’s ability to fully evaluate the ongoing stream of new WTO proposals and new trade measures being implemented by foreign trade partners; determine Georgia’s strategic interests and develop appropriate policy responses through the use of an interagency consultation process; and determine effective strategies to advance their positions in key committees and negotiations at the WTO, as well as in bilateral demarches with foreign partners.


Goal: Improve the coordination and collaboration among the Kyrgyz Republic’s State Customs Service and other agencies tasked with intellectual property protection and enforcement; the skill and knowledge level of Customs officials in the identification of IP infringing goods; and the capacity of the judiciary and the legal community to provide fair, consistent, and efficient adjudication of IP cases. CLDP also works to increase enforcement of the current public procurement law, encourage legislative and regulatory adoption of international public procurement standards, and accession to the WTO Government Procurement Agreement.

Program Areas:

  • Build capacity in key Kyrgyz government agencies on intellectual property protection and enforcement.
  • Judicial capacity building program on adjudication of intellectual property infringement cases and capacity building on intellectual property rights within the broader legal community.
  • Capacity building trainings that promote an efficient and transparent public procurement regulatory system in Kyrgyzstan.

Upcoming Programs

May 11, 2020 - May 13, 2020

CLDP, in coordination with experts from the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and the U.S. Department of Commerce’s International Trade Administration conducted a workshop on transparency and good regulatory practice in the development and implementation of sanitary and phyto-sanitary rules and regulations. During the October 2019 Joint Commercial Council in Chisinau, Moldova’s then-Minister of Agriculture noted a need to strengthen Moldova’s ability to comply with its WTO transparency obligations and to improve its overall ability to notify and take comment on new measures during the regulatory development process. The workshop focused on exploring different notice and comment models, promoting evidence-based regulatory decision making, interagency coordination, participation in the WTO SPS Committee, and notification of new or amended measures to relevant international bodies, which will help Moldova meet its WTO SPS Agreement obligations.

CLDP in Action

March 26, 2020 - March 27, 2020

details coming soon